Distribution of  ABO Blood Type Blood Types ~ rh-Positive or rh-Negative ~

Distribution of Blood Types 

Blood provides an ideal opportunity for the study of human variation without cultural prejudice ~  It can be easily classified for many different genetically inherited blood typing systems.  Also significant is the fact that we rarely take blood types into consideration in selecting mates ~

In addition, few people know their own type today & no one did prior to 1900.  

As a result, differences in blood type frequencies around the world are most likely due to other factors than social discrimination.  

Contemporary Japan is somewhat of an exception since there are popular Japanese stereotypes about people with different blood types

~ This could affect choice in marriage partners for some Japanese.

All human populations share the same 29 known blood systems, although they differ in the frequencies of specific types ~ Given the evolutionary closeness of apes and monkeys to our species, it is not surprising that some of them share a number of blood typing systems with us as well.

When we donate blood or have surgery, a small sample is usually taken in advance for at least ABO pastedGraphic.png and Rh pastedGraphic.png systems typing.

 If you are O+, the O is your ABO type and the + is your Rh type.  

It is possible to be A, B, AB, or O as well as Rh+ pastedGraphic.png or Rh- pastedGraphic.png 

You inherited your blood types from your parents & the environment in which you live cannot change them.

 ABO Blood Type System

We have learned a good deal about how common each of the ABO blood types is around the world. ~ It is quite clear that the distribution patterns are complex.  

Both clinal and discontinuous distributions exist, suggesting a complicated evolutionary history for humanity.  

This can be seen with the global frequency patterns of the type B blood allele (shown in the map below).  

Note that it is highest in Central Asia and lowest among the indigenous peoples of the Americas and Australia.  

However, there are relatively high-frequency pockets in Africa as well.  

Overall in the world,

B (From the Bible-Abraham – the Chosen Race?) is the rarest ABO blood allele.  

Only 16% of humanity have it.

Distribution of the B type blood allele in native populations of the world

The A (Plant Protein types)  blood allele is somewhat more common around the world than B.  About 21% of all people share the A allele. 

The highest frequencies of A are found in small, unrelated populations, especially the Blackfoot Indians of Montana (30-35%) ~ the Australian Aborigines (many groups are 40-53%) ~ \& the Lapps, or Saami people, of Northern Scandinavia (50-90%).  

The A allele apparently was absent among Central and South American Indians.

Distribution of the A type blood allele in native populations of the world

The O (Original Hunters & Gathers – ANIMAL PROTEIN FUEL ~ blood type (usually resulting from the absence of both A and B alleles) is very common around the world.  About 63% of humans share it.  Type O is particularly high in frequency among the indigenous populations of Central and South America, where it approaches 100%.  It also is relatively high among Australian Aborigines and in Western Europe (especially in populations with Celtic ancestors).  The lowest frequency of O is found in Eastern Europe and Central Asia, where B is common. message:

Distribution of the O type blood in native populations of the world

 Other Blood Type Systems

The majority of the people in the world have the Rh+ blood type.  However, it is more common in some regions.  Native Americans and Australian Aborigines were very likely 99-100% Rh+ before they began interbreeding with people from other parts of the world.  This does not imply that Native Americans and Australian Aborigines are historically closely related to each other.  Most Subsaharan African populations are around 97-99% Rh+.  East Asians are 93-99+% Rh+.  Europeans have the lowest frequency of this blood type for any continent.  They are 83-85% Rh+.  The lowest known frequency is found among the Basques of the Pyrenees Mountains between France and Spain.  They are only 65% Rh+.

The distribution patterns for the Diego pastedGraphic.png blood system are even more striking.  Evidently, all Africans, Europeans, East Indians, Australian Aborigines, and Polynesians are Diego negative.  The only populations with Diego positive people may be Native Americans (2-46%) and East Asians (3-12%).  This nonrandom distribution pattern fits well with the hypothesis of an East Asian origin for Native Americans.

Origin Theories of the Rare Rh-Negative Blood Factor & Danubian Corridor ~

A Scientific Explanation: Rh-Negatives & CO2 ~ Interesting article collaboration by LAW PUNDIT. Copyright 2006

Found at: http://www.lawpundit.com/blog

We are subject to all kinds of laws and chief among these are the laws of genetics, which are definitely supreme over the laws made by men. Religious zealots of all persuasions should consider the fact that what some might view to be “God in action” is found in all of us in the unique genetic blueprint of each of our organisms, regardless of our religious affiliation.

A special category in genetics is comprised by our blood types, especially the ABO and Rh blood groups.

In our modern age, many citizens of civilized nations know their own ABO blood group (A, B, O, or AB) and most also know whether they are Rh-positive or rh-negative, since this knowledge can be essential for healthy childbearing. A recent question from a reader of LexiLine about the origin and mutation of the Rh protein led the Law Pundit to do a bit of research, which is our specialty, leading to a remarkable potential discovery about the cause for the Rh-negative mutation.

All modern genetic DNA evidence points to an “out-of-Africa” origin for humanity. Hence, it is our view that Rh+ (Rh-positive) is the original Rh blood allele in humans, since black Africans in Africa who have not mixed either with white populations or with mixed-race persons have ONLY this Rh allele and no evidence of Rh- (Rh-negative).

Since Rh- (Rh-negative) is an allele which is found predominantly among white populations (ca. 40-45% in Europe), it must clearly be a mutation which followed after man’s migrations from Africa to Europe.

Moreover, Rh-negative is found much more frequently among A and O blood groups, which are the major blood types in Western Europe, whereas Rh-negative is much rarer among persons with B and AB blood types.

rh protein plays a significant role as a channel for CO2 gas (carbon dioxide) across cell membranes in the body: “Rh proteins act as gas channels that help speed the transfer of carbon dioxide (CO2) in and out of red blood cells. CO2 can also pass through the cell membrane unaided (above right), but not quickly enough.”

Hence, it would seem to be a likely hypothesis to this observer, presented here for the first time, that Rh- (Rh-negative) developed due to a (presumably beneficial) change mandated in our human breathing of the Earth’s air in the more northerly European latitudes.

This would make sense since there is in fact a global air-sea flux of CO2 (carbon dioxide) which could correspond to the mutation we see in Rh from Africa (Rh+) to Western Europe (Rh-).

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READ MORE ~

Environment and the Laws of Genetics –

The Rh Blood Protein and Respiration – 

A New Discovery Worthy of the Nobel Prize

We are subject to all kinds of laws and chief among these are the laws of genetics, which are definitely supreme over the laws made by men. Religious zealots of all persuasions should consider the fact that what some might view to be “God in action” is found in all of us in the unique genetic blueprint of each of our organisms, regardless of our religious affiliation.

A special category in genetics is comprised by our blood types, especially the ABO and Rh blood groups. In our modern age, many citizens of civilized nations know their own ABO blood group (A, B, O, or AB) and most also know whether they are Rh-positive or rh-negative, since this knowledge can be essential for healthy childbearing.

A recent question from a reader of LexiLine about the origin and mutation of the Rh protein led the Law Pundit to do a bit of research, which is our specialty, leading to a remarkable potential discovery about the cause for the Rh-negative mutation.

For a bit of background information, we refer to a mathematically produced dendrite of the world distribution of blood groups, adapted from A. Kelus and J. Lukaszewicz (authors of Taksonomia wroclawska w zastosowaniu do zagadnien seroantropologii Archiwum Immunol. terap. Doswiadizalnej 1 245-254 , 1953), as presented in Ludwig Hirszfeld (also Hirschfeld or Hirsfeld), Probleme der Blutgruppenforschung (book review here, or see Footnote 1 below).

Also for background, we refer to a very short discussion of the prevalence of Rh-negative in certain ethnic groups by Steve Mack, Post-doc/Fellow, Molecular and Cell Biology, Children’s Hospital Oakland Research Institute.

A chart of the ethnic distribution of Rh+ (Rh-positive) and Rh- (Rh-negative) blood alleles (based on data from the American Association of Blood Banks, AABS) is found at the bottom of the article at http://www.pjms.com.pk/issues/aprjun05/article/article14.html.
The distribution table is located just before the conclusion section of the article at the end.

All modern genetic DNA evidence points to an “out-of-Africa” origin for humanity. Hence, it is our view that Rh+ (Rh-positive) is the original Rh blood allele in humans, since black Africans in Africa who have not mixed either with white populations or with mixed-race persons have ONLY this Rh allele and no evidence of Rh- (Rh-negative).

Since Rh- (Rh-negative) is an allele which is found predominantly among white populations (ca. 40-45% in Europe), it must clearly be a mutation which followed after man’s migrations from Africa to Europe.

Moreover, Rh-negative is found much more frequently among A and O blood groups, which are the major blood types in Western Europe, whereas Rh-negative is much rarer among persons with B and AB blood types. See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blood_type

New research has been published about the Rh protein by Sydney G. Kustu and William Inwood, and we think that it is so important that it will ultimately be awarded the Nobel Prize in Medicine because of its fundamental potential impact on biological and genetic research.

See http://www.berkeley.edu/news/media/releases/2005/05/25_rhesus.shtml and
S. Kustu and W. Inwood, Biological gas channels for NH3 and CO2: evidence that Rh (Rhesus) proteins are CO2 channels, Transfus. Clin. Biol. (Transfusion Clinique et Biologique (Paris), 13:103-10, 2006. [TCB (abstract)] and
Kwang-Seo Kim, Eithne Feild, Natalie King, Takuro Yaoi, Sydney Kustu, and William Inwood, Spontaneous Mutations in the Ammonium Transport Gene AMT4 of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, Genetics, Vol. 170, 631-644, June 2005, [Abstract] [Full Text] [Supplemental Data] )

As noted in the Berkeley article (under the graphic caption) the Rh protein plays a significant role as a channel for CO2 gas (carbon dioxide) across cell membranes in the body:

“Rh proteins act as gas channels that help speed the transfer of carbon dioxide (CO2) in and out of red blood cells. CO2 can also pass through the cell membrane unaided (above right), but not quickly enough.”

The PubMed Abstract writes:

“Department of Plant and Microbial Biology, 111 Koshland Hall, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720-3102, USA. kustu@nature.berkeley.edu

Physiological evidence from our laboratory indicates that Amt/Mep proteins are gas channels for NH3, the first biological gas channels to be described. This view has now been confirmed by structural evidence and is displacing the previous belief that Amt/Mep proteins were active transporters for the NH4+ ion. Still disputed is the physiological substrate for Rh proteins, the only known homologues of Amt/Mep proteins. Many think they are mammalian ammonium (NH4+ or NH3) transporters. Following Monod’s famous dictum, “Anything found to be true of E. coli must also be true of elephants” [Perspect. Biol. Med. 47(1) (2004) 47], we explored the substrate for Rh proteins in the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. C. reinhardtii is one of the simplest organisms to have Rh proteins and it also has Amt proteins. Physiological studies in this microbe indicate that the substrate for Rh proteins is CO2 and confirm that the substrate for Amt proteins is NH3. Both are readily hydrated gases. Knowing that transport of CO2 is the ancestral function of Rh proteins supports the inference from hematological research that a newly evolving role of the human Rh30 proteins, RhCcEe and RhD, is to help maintain the flexible, flattened shape of the red cell.
PMID: 16563833 [PubMed – in process]”

Hence, it would seem to be a likely hypothesis to this observer, presented here for the first time, that Rh- (Rh-negative) developed due to a (presumably beneficial) change mandated in our human breathing of the Earth’s air in the more northerly European latitudes.

This would make sense since there is in fact a global air-sea flux of CO2 (carbon dioxide) which could correspond to the mutation we see in Rh from Africa (Rh+) to Western Europe (Rh-). As noted in a Colloquium of the US National Academy of Sciences:

“Temperate and polar oceans of the both hemispheres are the major sinks for atmospheric CO2, whereas the equatorial oceans are the major sources for CO2. The Atlantic Ocean is the most important CO2 sink, providing about 60% of the global ocean uptake, while the Pacific Ocean is neutral because of its equatorial source flux being balanced by the sink flux of the temperate oceans. The Indian and Southern Oceans take up about 20% each.”

(The above is quoted from the Abstract of Taro Takahashi, Richard A. Feely, Ray F. Weiss, Rik H. Wanninkhof, David W. Chipman, Stewart C. Sutherland, and Timothy T. Takahashi, Global air-sea flux of CO2: An estimate based on measurements of sea–air pCO2 difference, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, Vol. 94, pp. 8292–8299, August 1997, colloquium paper presented at a colloquium entitled “Carbon Dioxide and Climate Change,” organized by Charles D. Keeling, held November 13–15, 1995, at the National Academy of Sciences, Irvine, CA.)

In other words, the Rh mutation from Rh-positive to Rh-negative is arguably environmental in cause, with the human body adjusting to different CO2 and oxygen conditions as present in Western Europe and as opposed to those prevalent in the original homeland of Africa, as evidenced by the differing atmospheric CO2 sinks prevailing in oceans bordering on the two different geographic locations. Presumably, the reason for the mutation was in part “the air” (and climate) and the human body’s changed oxygen (O2)/carbon dioxide (CO2) balance.

We presume that the reason for the mutation can also be analogized to the body’s reaction to decreased levels of oxygen at higher altitudespastedGraphic.png, which leads to substantial biological reactions:

“Adaptation to a lower oxygen environment causes the body to produce a chain of biological reactions. The heart and lungs are stimulated to increase their functions and even over the long term, to increase in size. Blood vessels dilate and new capillaries are formed in the heart, brain and skeletal muscles. In the blood, levels of erythropoietin (EPO), haemoglobin, myoglobin and 2,3 diglycerophosphate increase. All these factors make the blood capable of carrying more oxygen and on a cellular level there is a growth of the cellular structures needed for the metabolism of oxygen. After IHT (Intermittent Hypoxic Treatment) the lactate threshold increases indicating that the body is utilizing available oxygen more efficiently.”

The same holds true for thermoregulation, i.e. the body’s response to temperature. The Medical Department of the U.S. Army has published a book titled Medical Aspects of Harsh EnvironmentspastedGraphic.png (Volume I), which contains a great amount of relevant information about human adaptation and human physiological responses to heat and cold. A map of the average wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT) index in the northern hemisphere during July is shown at page 103 of that volume and a similar map at page 105 of that volume shows the relationship between selected regional skin temperatures and core body temperature at rest over a range of temperate and hot climatic conditions.

It is clear from the discussion in subsequent pages of that volume that thermoregulation is related to oxygen uptake and thus of course, conversely, to carbon dioxide expulsion. Moreover, not only does the respiratory system react significantly to heat and cold (see page 366 of that volume), but this is accompanied by changes in the solubility of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood (p. 368): “as the temperature decreases, the solubility of carbon dioxide in blood increases.”

Since the Rh protein affects the rate at which carbon dioxide “channels through” cell membranes, its role may well be comparable in respiration to that found for ion pathways in the plasma membrane. As noted at page 179 of that volume:

“Ions do not readily cross lipid bilayers despite their large concentration gradients across plasma membranes. In general, they require specialized channels or carriers to do so….. Membrane channels are proteins that contain hydrophilic pores that penetrate the lipid bilayer, permitting the diffusion of specific ions down their electrochemical gradients to enter or leave cells.”

Given the fact that “the Rh polypeptide is a major fatty acid-acylated erythrocyte membrane protein”, i.e. an element of our red blood cells – which transport oxygen to the blood, the discovery that Rh proteins act as gas channels for carbon dioxide in living organisms is one of the most important discoveries made in medicine (and genetics) – ever.

__________
Footnote 

The book review in German at SpringerLink.com by L. Ballowitz of Hirszfeld, L, Probleme der Blugruppenforschung, is reproduced here:

“BUCHBESPRECHUNGEN javascript:void(null)

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Found at: http://www.randomhouse.ca/catalog/display.pperl?isbn=9780676973662&view=printexcerpt

Written by: Mark Kurlansky

 

Excerpt ~ Chapter One

 

1.The Basque Myth

The Basques share with the Celts the privilege of indulging in unrivaled extravagance on the subject of themselves. —Miguel de Unamuno quoting Ampère, HISTORY OF FRENCH LITERATURE BEFORE THE TWELFTH CENTURY, 1884

The Basques seem to be a mythical people, almost an imagined people. Their ancient culture is filled with undated legends and customs. Their land itself, a world of red-roofed, whitewashed towns, tough green mountains, rocky crests, a cobalt sea that turns charcoal in stormy weather, a strange language, and big berets, exists on no maps except their own.

Basqueland begins at the Adour River with its mouth at Bayonne-the river that separates the Basques from the French pine forest swampland of Landes-and ends at the Ebro River, whose rich valley separates the dry red Spanish earth of Rioja from Basqueland. Basqueland looks too green to be Spain and too rugged to be France. The entire area is only 8,218 square miles, which is slightly smaller than New Hampshire.

Within this small space are seven Basque provinces. Four provinces are in Spain and have Basque and Spanish names: Nafaroa or Navarra, Gipuzkoa or Guipúzcoa, Bizkaia or Vizcaya, and Araba or Alava. Three are in France and have Basque and French names: Lapurdi or Labourd, Benafaroa or Basse Navarre, and Zuberoa or Soule. An old form of Basque nationalist graffiti is “4 + 3 = 1.”

As with most everything pertaining to Basques, the provinces are defined by language. There are seven dialects of the Basque language, though there are sub-dialects within some of the provinces.

In the Basque language, which is called Euskera, there is no word for Basque. The only word to identify a member of their group is Eushaldun-Euskera speaker. Their land is called Euskal Herria-the land of Euskera speakers. It is language that defines a Basque.

The Central Mystery Is: Who are the Basques? The early Basques left no written records, and the first accounts of them, two centuries after the Romans arrived in 218 B.C., give the impression that they were already an ancient-or at least not a new-people. Artifacts predating this time that have been found in the area-a few tools, drawings in caves, and the rudiments of ruins-cannot be proved to have been made by Basques, though it is supposed that at least some of them were.

Ample evidence exists that the Basques are a physically distinct group. There is a Basque type with a long straight nose, thick eyebrows, strong chin, and long earlobes. Even today, sitting in a bar in a mountainous river valley town like Tolosa, watching men play mus, the popular card game, one can see a similarity in the faces, despite considerable intermarriage. Personalities, of course, carve very different visages, but over and over again, from behind a hand of cards, the same eyebrows, chin, and nose can be seen. The identical dark navy wool berets so many men wear-each in a slightly different manner-seem to showcase the long Basque ears sticking out on the sides. In past eras, when Spaniards and French were typically fairly small people, Basque men were characteristically larger, thick chested, broad shouldered, and burly. Because these were also characteristics of Cro-Magnons, Basques are often thought to be direct descendants of this man who lived 40,000 years ago.

Less subjective physical evidence of an ancient and distinct group has also surfaced. In the beginning of the twentieth century, it was discovered that all blood was one of three types: A, B, or O. Basques have the highest concentration of type O in the world-more than 50 percent of the population-with an even higher percentage in remote areas where the language is best preserved, such as Soule. Most of the rest are type A. Type B is extremely rare among Basques. With the finding that Irish, Scots, Corsicans, and Cretans also have an unusually high incidence of type O, speculation ran wild that these peoples were somehow related to Basques. But then, in 1937, came the discovery of the rhesus factor, more commonly known as Rh positive or Rh negative. Basques were found to have the highest incidence of Rh negative blood of any people in the world, significantly higher than the rest of Europe, even significantly higher than neighboring regions of France and Spain. Cro-Magnon theorists point out that other places known to have been occupied by Cro-Magnon man, such as the Atlas Mountains of Morocco and the Canary Islands, also have been found to have a high incidence of Rh negative.

Twenty-seven percent of Basques have O Rh negative blood. Rh negative blood in a pregnant woman can fatally poison a fetus that has positive blood. Since World War II, intervention techniques to save the fetus have been developed, but it is probable that throughout history, the rate of miscarriage and stillborn births among the Basques was extremely high, which may be one of the reasons they remained a small population on a limited amount of land while other populations, especially in Iberia, grew rapidly.

Before Basque blood was studied as a key to their origins, several attempts were made to analyze the structure of Basque skulls. At the beginning of the nineteenth century, a researcher reported, “Someone gave me a Basque body and I dissected it and I assert that the head was not built like that of other men.”
Studies of Basque skulls in the nineteenth century concluded, depending on whose study is believed, that Basques were either Turks, Tartars, Magyars, Germans, Laplanders, or the descendants of Cro-Magnon man either originating in Basqueland or coming from the Berbers of North Africa.  

Danubian corridor

Or do clothes hold the secret to Basque origins? A twelfth-century writer, Aimeric de Picaud, considered not skulls but skirts, concluding after seeing Basque men in short ones that they were clearly descendants of Scots.
The most useful artifact left behind by the ancient Basques is their language. Linguists find that while the language has adopted foreign words, the grammar has proved resistant to change, so that modern Euskera is thought to be far closer to its ancient form than modern Greek is to ancient Greek. Euskera has extremely complex verbs and twelve cases, few forms of politeness, a limited number of abstractions, a rich vocabulary for natural phenomena, and no prepositions or articles.

Etxea is the word for a house or home. “At home” is etxean. “To the house” is etxera. “From home” is etxetik. Concepts are formed by adding more and more suffixes, which is what is known as an agglutinating language. This agglutinating language only has about 200,000 words, but its vocabulary is greatly extended by almost 200 standard suffixes. In contrast, the Oxford English Dictionary was compiled from a data base of 60 million words, but English is a language with an unusually large vocabulary. It is sometimes said that Euskera includes just nouns, verbs, and suffixes, but relatively simple concepts can become words of formidable size. Iparsortalderatu is a verb meaning “to head in a northeasterly direction.”

Euskera has often been dismissed as an impossible language. Arturo Campión, a nineteenth-century Basque writer from Navarra, complained that the dictionary of the Royal Spanish Academy defined Euskera as “the Basque language, so confusing and obscure that it can hardly be understood.” It is obscure but not especially confusing. The language seems more difficult than it is because it is so unfamiliar, so different from other languages. Its profusion of ks and xs looks intimidating on the page, but the language is largely phonetic with some minor pitfalls, such as a very soft b and an aspirated h as in English, which is difficult for French and Spanish speakers to pronounce. The x is pronounced “ch.” Etxea is pronounced “et-CHAY-a.” For centuries Spanish speakers made Euskera seem friendlier to them by changing xs to chs as in echea, and ks, which do not exist in Latin languages, to cs, as in Euscera. To English speakers, Basque spellings are often more phonetic than Spanish equivalents. The town the Spanish call Guernica is pronounced the way the Basques write it-Gernika.

The structure of the language-roots and suffixes-offers important clues about Basque origins. The modern words aitzur, meaning “hoe,” aizkora, meaning “axe,” aizto, meaning “knife,” plus various words for digging and cutting, all come from the word haitz or the older aitz, which means “stone.” Such etymology seems to indicate a very old language, indeed from the Stone Age. Even though the language has acquired newer words, notably Latin from the Romans and the Church, and Spanish, such words are used in a manner unique to this ancestral language. Ezpata, like the Spanish word espada, means “sword.” But ezpatakada means “the blow from a sword,” ezpatajoka means “fencing,” and espatadantzari is a “sword dancer.”

Though numerous attempts have been made, no one has ever found a linguistic relative of Euskera. It is an orphan language that does not even belong to the Indo-European family of languages. This is a remarkable fact because once the Indo-Europeans began their Bronze Age sweep from the Asian subcontinent across Europe, virtually no group, no matter how isolated, was left untouched. Even Celtic is Indo-European. Finnish, Estonian, and Hungarian are the only other living European languages that are not related to the Indo-European group. Inevitably there have been theories linking Finnish and Euskera or Hungarian and Euskera. Did the Basques immigrate from Lapland? Hungarian, it has been pointed out, is also an agglutinating language. But no other connection has been found between the Basque language and its fellow agglutinators. ~

A brief attempt to tie the Basques to the Picts, ancient occupants of Britain who spoke a language thought to be pre-Indo-European, fell apart when it was discovered the Picts weren’t non-Indo-European at all, but were Celtic.
If, as appears to be the case, the Basque language predates the Indo-European invasion, if it is an early or even pre-Bronze Age tongue, it is very likely the oldest living European language.

If Euskera is the oldest living European language, are Basques the oldest European culture? For centuries that question has driven both Basques and non-Basques on the quest to find the Basque origin. Miguel de Unamuno, one of the best-known Basque writers, devoted his earliest work, written in 1884 when he was still a student, to the question. “I am Basque,” he began, “and so I arrive with suspicion and caution at this little and poorly garnered subject.”

As Unamuno pointed out, and this is still true today, many researchers have not hesitated to employ a liberal dose of imagination. One theory not only has Adam and Eve speaking Euskera but has the language predating their expulsion from the Garden of Eden. The name Eve, according to this theory, comes from ezbai, “no-yes” in Euskera. The walls of Jericho crumbled, it was also discovered, when trumpets blasted a Basque hymn.

The vagaries of fact and fiction were encouraged by the fact that the Basques were so late to document their language. The first book entirely in Euskera was not published until 1545. No Basques had attempted to study their own history or origins until the sixteenth-century Guipúzcoan Esteban de Garibay. Spanish historians of the time had already claimed that Iberia was populated by descendants of Tubal, Noah’s grandson, who went to Iberia thirty-five years after the Flood subsided. Garibay observed that Basque place-names bore a resemblance to those in Armenia where the ark landed, and therefore it was specifically the Basques who descended from Tubal. Was not Mount Gorbeya in southern Vizcaya named after Mount Gordeya in Armenia? Garibay traced Euskera to the Tower of Babel.

In 1729, when Manuel de Larramendi wrote the first book of Basque grammar ever published, he asserted that Euskera was one of seventy-five languages to have developed out of the confusion at the Tower of Babel. According to Juan Bautista de Erro, whose The Primitive World or a Philosophical Examination of Antiquity and Culture of the Basque Nation was published in Madrid in 1815, Euskera is the world’s oldest language, having been devised by God as the language of Adam’s Paradise, preserved in the Tower of Babel, surviving the Flood because Noah spoke the language, and brought to present-day Basque country by Tubal.

In one popular legend, the first Basque was Aïtor, one of a few remarkable men who survived the Flood without Noah’s ark, by leaping from stone to stone. However, Aïtor, still recognized by some as the father of all Basques, was invented in 1848 by the French Basque writer Augustin Chaho. After Chaho’s article on Aïtor was translated into Spanish in 1878, the legend grew and became a mainstay of Basque culture. Some who said Aïtor was mere fiction went on to hypothesize that the real father of all Basques was Tubal.

Since then, links have been conjectured with languages of the Caucasus, Africa, Siberia, and Japan. One nineteenth-century researcher concluded that Basques were a Celtic tribe, another that they were Etruscans. And inevitably it has been discovered that the Basques, like so many other peoples, were actually the lost thirteenth tribe of Israel. Just as inescapably, others have concluded that the Basques are, in reality, the survivors of Atlantis.

A case for the Basques really being Jews was carefully made by a French clergyman, the abbot J. Espagnolle, in a 1900 book titled L’Origine des Basques (The Origin of the Basques). For this theory to work, the reader first had to realize that the people of ancient Sparta were Jewish. To support this claim, Espagnolle quotes a historian of ancient Greece who wrote, “Love of money is a Spartan characteristic.” If this was not proof enough, he also argues that Sparta, like Judea, had a lack of artisans. The wearing of hats and respect for elders were among further evidence offered. From there, it was simply a matter of asserting, as ancient Greek historians had, he said, that the Spartans colonized northern Spain. And of course these Spartan colonists who later became Basques were Jewish.

With issues of nationhood at stake, such seemingly desperate hypotheses may not be devoid of political motives. “Indigenous” is a powerful notion to both the French and Spanish states. Both define their history as the struggle of their people, the rightful indigenous occupants, to defend their land against the Moors, invaders from another place, of another race, and of another religion. In Europe, this heroic struggle has long been an essential underpinning of both nationalism and racism. The idea that Basques were in their European mountains, speaking their own indigenous European language, long before the French and the Spanish, is disturbing to French and Spanish nationalists. Unless the Basques can be shown to be from somewhere else, the Spanish and French are transformed into the Moorish role-outside invaders imposing an alien culture. From the sixteenth century on, historians receiving government salaries in Madrid wrote histories that deliberately minimized the possibility of indigenous Basques.

But the Basques like the idea, which most evidence supports, that they are the original Europeans, predating all others. If true, it must have been an isolating experience, belonging to this ancient people whose culture had little in common with any of its neighbors. It was written over and over in the records of those who observed the Basques that they spoke a strange language that kept them apart from others. But it is also what kept them together as a people, uniting them to withstand Europe’s great invasions

Blood of the Gods

Interesting article by the late Mabel Royce, Copyright 1976

Found at: http://www.labyrinthina.com/sitchen.htm

 

Are you an rh Negative blood type? If so you could be a descendant of the ancient astronauts themselves!

About a year and a half ago my sister Bonnie and I were discussing some of the unusual characteristics of our family. Bonnie had a problem with infants haemolytic disease. She has 0 negative blood. She has written a book including this problem called “The Deux” by Venus Thaddeus. One of the questions we asked was why does this haemolytic disease occur? Why, along with the Rh negative blood does our family have such a high IQ (135-140 average). Why so many psychic experiences? Why this urge to ask “why?” Why the early maturity or the large head and eyes? Why have, we always felt we were “different” from other people. And so many other things to set us apart.

We were raised in the church, but we never received answers to the questions we asked. Why doesn’t anyone else ask these same questions? We are not satisfied with the answer “just because”. Are there others out there who ask the same questions? Then we heard about the possibility of the ancient astronauts and the pieces started to fall into place.

The rh Registry –Read Full Article >

Hyperborea ~ Rh- Bloodline Migrations into the World

Found at: http://www.unexplainable.net/artman/publish/article_12014.shtml

 

You will notice that many DNA studies on line ONLY track the SERPENT BLOODLINES with the Rh Negative blood factor. These studies focus on the Basque area of Europe. These studies DO NOT track the PURE rH NEGATIVE BLOODLINE FACTOR group back to Hyperborea.

 

INTERESTING

 

IT WOULD APPEAR THAT THEY DO NOT WANT US TO FIND OUT WHERE OUR PURE RH NEGATIVE BLOODLINE ANCESTORS CAME FROM.

 

These studies also track the Rh Negative bloodlines to a place in Europe where inbreeding occurred. These studies take us back to a place where the DARK HAIR DARK EYED RACES mingled their seed in with the BLONDE BLUE-EYED Scandinavians in places like the Iberian Peninsula, France and the British Isles.

 

Some scientists would have us believe that the human race started in Africa despite the fact that the oldest mummies found in recent archeological digs all over the world were of Scandinavian. Some scientists state that mankind evolve from monkeys somewhere in Africa, but cannot find the missing link between the Rhesus Monkey and human beings. This scientific opinion has always been a highly contested theory.

The rh Registry 

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 The Annunaki: Enki & Enlil

Found at:http://www.rumormillnews.com/cgi-bin/archive.cgi?read=101510

 

This is an excerpt from the book ‘Keeper of the Celtic Secrets:’

 

Finally, [from “Keeper of the Celtic Secrets”], knowledge about the origins of the major races, who call the Earth home, is being shared with others. You must keep an open mind – stay out of your cave now, or you won’t be able to grasp the wisdom being presented here.

 

Yes, Virginia, there really were E.T.’s, who do you think provided the wisdom to build the pyramids, give us mathematical equations, science and astronomy? Are you ready for some real wisdom? OK – Good. As per old family journals containing knowledge from ancient Ireland, the origin of races are as follows:

 

  1. Caucasoid, or the WHITE races, descend from the Anunnaki, including the Elohiym godhead. And yes, the ancient Israelites, are actually descendants of the Elohiym royal family.

http://rhnegativeregistry.com/welcome.html

http://rhnegativeregistry.com/rh-negative-survey-1.html

http://rhnegativeregistry.com/membership_options.html

https://www.paypal.com/us/cgi-bin/webscr?

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Origin Theories of the Rare Rh-Negative Blood Factor & Danubian Corridor ~

A Scientific Explanation: Rh-Negatives & CO2

Interesting article collaboration by LAW PUNDIT. Copyright 2006

Found at: http://www.lawpundit.com/blog

 

We are subject to all kinds of laws and chief among these are the laws of genetics, which are definitely supreme over the laws made by men. Religious zealots of all persuasions should consider the fact that what some might view to be “God in action” is found in all of us in the unique genetic blueprint of each of our organisms, regardless of our religious affiliation.

 

A special category in genetics is comprised by our blood types, especially the ABO and Rh blood groups. In our modern age, many citizens of civilized nations know their own ABO blood group (A, B, O, or AB) and most also know whether they are Rh-positive or Rh-negative, since this knowledge can be essential for healthy childbearing. A recent question from a reader of LexiLine about the origin and mutation of the Rh protein led the Law Pundit to do a bit of research, which is our specialty, leading to a remarkable potential discovery about the cause for the Rh-negative mutation.

 

All modern genetic DNA evidence points to an “out-of-Africa” origin for humanity. Hence, it is our view that Rh+ (Rh-positive) is the original Rh blood allele in humans, since black Africans in Africa who have not mixed either with white populations or with mixed-race persons have ONLY this Rh allele and no evidence of Rh- (Rh-negative).

 

Since Rh- (Rh-negative) is an allele which is found predominantly among white populations (ca. 40-45% in Europe), it must clearly be a mutation which followed after man’s migrations from Africa to Europe.

 

Moreover, Rh-negative is found much more frequently among A and O blood groups, which are the major blood types in Western Europe, whereas Rh-negative is much rarer among persons with B and AB blood types.

 

rh protein plays a significant role as a channel for CO2 gas (carbon dioxide) across cell membranes in the body: “Rh proteins act as gas channels that help speed the transfer of carbon dioxide (CO2) in and out of red blood cells. CO2 can also pass through the cell membrane unaided (above right), but not quickly enough.”

 

Hence, it would seem to be a likely hypothesis to this observer, presented here for the first time, that Rh- (Rh-negative) developed due to a (presumably beneficial) change mandated in our human breathing of the Earth’s air in the more northerly European latitudes.

This would make sense since there is in fact a global air-sea flux of CO2 (carbon dioxide) which could correspond to the mutation we see in Rh from Africa (Rh+) to Western Europe (Rh-).

Read Full Article >

READ MORE ~

Environment and the Laws of Genetics –

The Rh Blood Protein and Respiration – 

A New Discovery Worthy of the Nobel Prize

We are subject to all kinds of laws and chief among these are the laws of genetics, which are definitely supreme over the laws made by men. Religious zealots of all persuasions should consider the fact that what some might view to be “God in action” is found in all of us in the unique genetic blueprint of each of our organisms, regardless of our religious affiliation.

A special category in genetics is comprised by our blood types, especially the ABO and Rh blood groups. In our modern age, many citizens of civilized nations know their own ABO blood group (A, B, O, or AB) and most also know whether they are Rh-positive or Rh-negative, since this knowledge can be essential for healthy childbearing.

A recent question from a reader of LexiLine about the origin and mutation of the Rh protein led the Law Pundit to do a bit of research, which is our specialty, leading to a remarkable potential discovery about the cause for the Rh-negative mutation.

For a bit of background information, we refer to a mathematically produced dendrite of the world distribution of blood groups, adapted from A. Kelus and J. Lukaszewicz (authors of Taksonomia wroclawska w zastosowaniu do zagadnien seroantropologii Archiwum Immunol. terap. Doswiadizalnej 1 245-254 , 1953), as presented in Ludwig Hirszfeld (also Hirschfeld or Hirsfeld), Probleme der Blutgruppenforschung (book review here, or see Footnote 1 below).

Also for background, we refer to a very short discussion of the prevalence of Rh-negative in certain ethnic groups by Steve Mack, Post-doc/Fellow, Molecular and Cell Biology, Children’s Hospital Oakland Research Institute.

A chart of the ethnic distribution of Rh+ (Rh-positive) and Rh- (Rh-negative) blood alleles (based on data from the American Association of Blood Banks, AABS) is found at the bottom of the article at http://www.pjms.com.pk/issues/aprjun05/article/article14.html.
The distribution table is located just before the conclusion section of the article at the end.

All modern genetic DNA evidence points to an “out-of-Africa” origin for humanity. Hence, it is our view that Rh+ (Rh-positive) is the original Rh blood allele in humans, since black Africans in Africa who have not mixed either with white populations or with mixed-race persons have ONLY this Rh allele and no evidence of Rh- (Rh-negative).

Since Rh- (Rh-negative) is an allele which is found predominantly among white populations (ca. 40-45% in Europe), it must clearly be a mutation which followed after man’s migrations from Africa to Europe.

Moreover, Rh-negative is found much more frequently among A and O blood groups, which are the major blood types in Western Europe, whereas Rh-negative is much rarer among persons with B and AB blood types. See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blood_type

New research has been published about the Rh protein by Sydney G. Kustu and William Inwood, and we think that it is so important that it will ultimately be awarded the Nobel Prize in Medicine because of its fundamental potential impact on biological and genetic research.

See http://www.berkeley.edu/news/media/releases/2005/05/25_rhesus.shtml and
S. Kustu and W. Inwood, Biological gas channels for NH3 and CO2: evidence that Rh (Rhesus) proteins are CO2 channels, Transfus. Clin. Biol. (Transfusion Clinique et Biologique (Paris), 13:103-10, 2006. [TCB (abstract)] and
Kwang-Seo Kim, Eithne Feild, Natalie King, Takuro Yaoi, Sydney Kustu, and William Inwood, Spontaneous Mutations in the Ammonium Transport Gene AMT4 of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, Genetics, Vol. 170, 631-644, June 2005, [Abstract] [Full Text] [Supplemental Data] )

As noted in the Berkeley article (under the graphic caption) the Rh protein plays a significant role as a channel for CO2 gas (carbon dioxide) across cell membranes in the body:

“Rh proteins act as gas channels that help speed the transfer of carbon dioxide (CO2) in and out of red blood cells. CO2 can also pass through the cell membrane unaided (above right), but not quickly enough.”

The PubMed Abstract writes:

“Department of Plant and Microbial Biology, 111 Koshland Hall, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720-3102, USA. kustu@nature.berkeley.edu

Physiological evidence from our laboratory indicates that Amt/Mep proteins are gas channels for NH3, the first biological gas channels to be described. This view has now been confirmed by structural evidence and is displacing the previous belief that Amt/Mep proteins were active transporters for the NH4+ ion. Still disputed is the physiological substrate for Rh proteins, the only known homologues of Amt/Mep proteins. Many think they are mammalian ammonium (NH4+ or NH3) transporters. Following Monod’s famous dictum, “Anything found to be true of E. coli must also be true of elephants” [Perspect. Biol. Med. 47(1) (2004) 47], we explored the substrate for Rh proteins in the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. C. reinhardtii is one of the simplest organisms to have Rh proteins and it also has Amt proteins. Physiological studies in this microbe indicate that the substrate for Rh proteins is CO2 and confirm that the substrate for Amt proteins is NH3. Both are readily hydrated gases. Knowing that transport of CO2 is the ancestral function of Rh proteins supports the inference from hematological research that a newly evolving role of the human Rh30 proteins, RhCcEe and RhD, is to help maintain the flexible, flattened shape of the red cell.
PMID: 16563833 [PubMed – in process]”

Hence, it would seem to be a likely hypothesis to this observer, presented here for the first time, that Rh- (Rh-negative) developed due to a (presumably beneficial) change mandated in our human breathing of the Earth’s air in the more northerly European latitudes.

This would make sense since there is in fact a global air-sea flux of CO2 (carbon dioxide) which could correspond to the mutation we see in Rh from Africa (Rh+) to Western Europe (Rh-). As noted in a Colloquium of the US National Academy of Sciences:

“Temperate and polar oceans of the both hemispheres are the major sinks for atmospheric CO2, whereas the equatorial oceans are the major sources for CO2. The Atlantic Ocean is the most important CO2 sink, providing about 60% of the global ocean uptake, while the Pacific Ocean is neutral because of its equatorial source flux being balanced by the sink flux of the temperate oceans. The Indian and Southern Oceans take up about 20% each.”

(The above is quoted from the Abstract of Taro Takahashi, Richard A. Feely, Ray F. Weiss, Rik H. Wanninkhof, David W. Chipman, Stewart C. Sutherland, and Timothy T. Takahashi, Global air-sea flux of CO2: An estimate based on measurements of sea–air pCO2 difference, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, Vol. 94, pp. 8292–8299, August 1997, colloquium paper presented at a colloquium entitled “Carbon Dioxide and Climate Change,” organized by Charles D. Keeling, held November 13–15, 1995, at the National Academy of Sciences, Irvine, CA.)

In other words, the Rh mutation from Rh-positive to Rh-negative is arguably environmental in cause, with the human body adjusting to different CO2 and oxygen conditions as present in Western Europe and as opposed to those prevalent in the original homeland of Africa, as evidenced by the differing atmospheric CO2 sinks prevailing in oceans bordering on the two different geographic locations. Presumably, the reason for the mutation was in part “the air” (and climate) and the human body’s changed oxygen (O2)/carbon dioxide (CO2) balance.

We presume that the reason for the mutation can also be analogized to the body’s reaction to decreased levels of oxygen at higher altitudespastedGraphic.png, which leads to substantial biological reactions:

“Adaptation to a lower oxygen environment causes the body to produce a chain of biological reactions. The heart and lungs are stimulated to increase their functions and even over the long term, to increase in size. Blood vessels dilate and new capillaries are formed in the heart, brain and skeletal muscles. In the blood, levels of erythropoietin (EPO), haemoglobin, myoglobin and 2,3 diglycerophosphate increase. All these factors make the blood capable of carrying more oxygen and on a cellular level there is a growth of the cellular structures needed for the metabolism of oxygen. After IHT (Intermittent Hypoxic Treatment) the lactate threshold increases indicating that the body is utilizing available oxygen more efficiently.”

The same holds true for thermoregulation, i.e. the body’s response to temperature. The Medical Department of the U.S. Army has published a book titled Medical Aspects of Harsh EnvironmentspastedGraphic.png (Volume I), which contains a great amount of relevant information about human adaptation and human physiological responses to heat and cold. A map of the average wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT) index in the northern hemisphere during July is shown at page 103 of that volume and a similar map at page 105 of that volume shows the relationship between selected regional skin temperatures and core body temperature at rest over a range of temperate and hot climatic conditions.

It is clear from the discussion in subsequent pages of that volume that thermoregulation is related to oxygen uptake and thus of course, conversely, to carbon dioxide expulsion. Moreover, not only does the respiratory system react significantly to heat and cold (see page 366 of that volume), but this is accompanied by changes in the solubility of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood (p. 368): “as the temperature decreases, the solubility of carbon dioxide in blood increases.”

Since the Rh protein affects the rate at which carbon dioxide “channels through” cell membranes, its role may well be comparable in respiration to that found for ion pathways in the plasma membrane. As noted at page 179 of that volume:

“Ions do not readily cross lipid bilayers despite their large concentration gradients across plasma membranes. In general, they require specialized channels or carriers to do so….. Membrane channels are proteins that contain hydrophilic pores that penetrate the lipid bilayer, permitting the diffusion of specific ions down their electrochemical gradients to enter or leave cells.”

Given the fact that “the Rh polypeptide is a major fatty acid-acylated erythrocyte membrane protein”, i.e. an element of our red blood cells – which transport oxygen to the blood, the discovery that Rh proteins act as gas channels for carbon dioxide in living organisms is one of the most important discoveries made in medicine (and genetics) – ever.

__________
Footnote 

The book review in German at SpringerLink.com by L. Ballowitz of Hirszfeld, L, Probleme der Blugruppenforschung, is reproduced here:

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Found at: http://www.randomhouse.ca/catalog/display.pperl?isbn=9780676973662&view=printexcerpt

Written by: Mark Kurlansky

 

Excerpt ~ Chapter One

 

1.The Basque Myth

The Basques share with the Celts the privilege of indulging in unrivaled extravagance on the subject of themselves. —Miguel de Unamuno quoting Ampère, HISTORY OF FRENCH LITERATURE BEFORE THE TWELFTH CENTURY, 1884

The Basques seem to be a mythical people, almost an imagined people. Their ancient culture is filled with undated legends and customs. Their land itself, a world of red-roofed, whitewashed towns, tough green mountains, rocky crests, a cobalt sea that turns charcoal in stormy weather, a strange language, and big berets, exists on no maps except their own.

Basqueland begins at the Adour River with its mouth at Bayonne-the river that separates the Basques from the French pine forest swampland of Landes-and ends at the Ebro River, whose rich valley separates the dry red Spanish earth of Rioja from Basqueland. Basqueland looks too green to be Spain and too rugged to be France. The entire area is only 8,218 square miles, which is slightly smaller than New Hampshire.

Within this small space are seven Basque provinces. Four provinces are in Spain and have Basque and Spanish names: Nafaroa or Navarra, Gipuzkoa or Guipúzcoa, Bizkaia or Vizcaya, and Araba or Alava. Three are in France and have Basque and French names: Lapurdi or Labourd, Benafaroa or Basse Navarre, and Zuberoa or Soule. An old form of Basque nationalist graffiti is “4 + 3 = 1.”

As with most everything pertaining to Basques, the provinces are defined by language. There are seven dialects of the Basque language, though there are sub-dialects within some of the provinces.

In the Basque language, which is called Euskera, there is no word for Basque. The only word to identify a member of their group is Eushaldun-Euskera speaker. Their land is called Euskal Herria-the land of Euskera speakers. It is language that defines a Basque.

The Central Mystery Is: Who are the Basques? The early Basques left no written records, and the first accounts of them, two centuries after the Romans arrived in 218 B.C., give the impression that they were already an ancient-or at least not a new-people. Artifacts predating this time that have been found in the area-a few tools, drawings in caves, and the rudiments of ruins-cannot be proved to have been made by Basques, though it is supposed that at least some of them were.

Ample evidence exists that the Basques are a physically distinct group. There is a Basque type with a long straight nose, thick eyebrows, strong chin, and long earlobes. Even today, sitting in a bar in a mountainous river valley town like Tolosa, watching men play mus, the popular card game, one can see a similarity in the faces, despite considerable intermarriage. Personalities, of course, carve very different visages, but over and over again, from behind a hand of cards, the same eyebrows, chin, and nose can be seen. The identical dark navy wool berets so many men wear-each in a slightly different manner-seem to showcase the long Basque ears sticking out on the sides. In past eras, when Spaniards and French were typically fairly small people, Basque men were characteristically larger, thick chested, broad shouldered, and burly. Because these were also characteristics of Cro-Magnons, Basques are often thought to be direct descendants of this man who lived 40,000 years ago.

Less subjective physical evidence of an ancient and distinct group has also surfaced. In the beginning of the twentieth century, it was discovered that all blood was one of three types: A, B, or O. Basques have the highest concentration of type O in the world-more than 50 percent of the population-with an even higher percentage in remote areas where the language is best preserved, such as Soule. Most of the rest are type A. Type B is extremely rare among Basques. With the finding that Irish, Scots, Corsicans, and Cretans also have an unusually high incidence of type O, speculation ran wild that these peoples were somehow related to Basques. But then, in 1937, came the discovery of the rhesus factor, more commonly known as Rh positive or Rh negative. Basques were found to have the highest incidence of Rh negative blood of any people in the world, significantly higher than the rest of Europe, even significantly higher than neighboring regions of France and Spain. Cro-Magnon theorists point out that other places known to have been occupied by Cro-Magnon man, such as the Atlas Mountains of Morocco and the Canary Islands, also have been found to have a high incidence of Rh negative.

Twenty-seven percent of Basques have O Rh negative blood. Rh negative blood in a pregnant woman can fatally poison a fetus that has positive blood. Since World War II, intervention techniques to save the fetus have been developed, but it is probable that throughout history, the rate of miscarriage and stillborn births among the Basques was extremely high, which may be one of the reasons they remained a small population on a limited amount of land while other populations, especially in Iberia, grew rapidly.

Before Basque blood was studied as a key to their origins, several attempts were made to analyze the structure of Basque skulls. At the beginning of the nineteenth century, a researcher reported, “Someone gave me a Basque body and I dissected it and I assert that the head was not built like that of other men.”
Studies of Basque skulls in the nineteenth century concluded, depending on whose study is believed, that Basques were either Turks, Tartars, Magyars, Germans, Laplanders, or the descendants of Cro-Magnon man either originating in Basqueland or coming from the Berbers of North Africa.  

Danubian corridor

Or do clothes hold the secret to Basque origins? A twelfth-century writer, Aimeric de Picaud, considered not skulls but skirts, concluding after seeing Basque men in short ones that they were clearly descendants of Scots.
The most useful artifact left behind by the ancient Basques is their language. Linguists find that while the language has adopted foreign words, the grammar has proved resistant to change, so that modern Euskera is thought to be far closer to its ancient form than modern Greek is to ancient Greek. Euskera has extremely complex verbs and twelve cases, few forms of politeness, a limited number of abstractions, a rich vocabulary for natural phenomena, and no prepositions or articles.

Etxea is the word for a house or home. “At home” is etxean. “To the house” is etxera. “From home” is etxetik. Concepts are formed by adding more and more suffixes, which is what is known as an agglutinating language. This agglutinating language only has about 200,000 words, but its vocabulary is greatly extended by almost 200 standard suffixes. In contrast, the Oxford English Dictionary was compiled from a data base of 60 million words, but English is a language with an unusually large vocabulary. It is sometimes said that Euskera includes just nouns, verbs, and suffixes, but relatively simple concepts can become words of formidable size. Iparsortalderatu is a verb meaning “to head in a northeasterly direction.”

Euskera has often been dismissed as an impossible language. Arturo Campión, a nineteenth-century Basque writer from Navarra, complained that the dictionary of the Royal Spanish Academy defined Euskera as “the Basque language, so confusing and obscure that it can hardly be understood.” It is obscure but not especially confusing. The language seems more difficult than it is because it is so unfamiliar, so different from other languages. Its profusion of ks and xs looks intimidating on the page, but the language is largely phonetic with some minor pitfalls, such as a very soft b and an aspirated h as in English, which is difficult for French and Spanish speakers to pronounce. The x is pronounced “ch.” Etxea is pronounced “et-CHAY-a.” For centuries Spanish speakers made Euskera seem friendlier to them by changing xs to chs as in echea, and ks, which do not exist in Latin languages, to cs, as in Euscera. To English speakers, Basque spellings are often more phonetic than Spanish equivalents. The town the Spanish call Guernica is pronounced the way the Basques write it-Gernika.

The structure of the language-roots and suffixes-offers important clues about Basque origins. The modern words aitzur, meaning “hoe,” aizkora, meaning “axe,” aizto, meaning “knife,” plus various words for digging and cutting, all come from the word haitz or the older aitz, which means “stone.” Such etymology seems to indicate a very old language, indeed from the Stone Age. Even though the language has acquired newer words, notably Latin from the Romans and the Church, and Spanish, such words are used in a manner unique to this ancestral language. Ezpata, like the Spanish word espada, means “sword.” But ezpatakada means “the blow from a sword,” ezpatajoka means “fencing,” and espatadantzari is a “sword dancer.”

Though numerous attempts have been made, no one has ever found a linguistic relative of Euskera. It is an orphan language that does not even belong to the Indo-European family of languages. This is a remarkable fact because once the Indo-Europeans began their Bronze Age sweep from the Asian subcontinent across Europe, virtually no group, no matter how isolated, was left untouched. Even Celtic is Indo-European. Finnish, Estonian, and Hungarian are the only other living European languages that are not related to the Indo-European group. Inevitably there have been theories linking Finnish and Euskera or Hungarian and Euskera. Did the Basques immigrate from Lapland? Hungarian, it has been pointed out, is also an agglutinating language. But no other connection has been found between the Basque language and its fellow agglutinators. ~

A brief attempt to tie the Basques to the Picts, ancient occupants of Britain who spoke a language thought to be pre-Indo-European, fell apart when it was discovered the Picts weren’t non-Indo-European at all, but were Celtic.
If, as appears to be the case, the Basque language predates the Indo-European invasion, if it is an early or even pre-Bronze Age tongue, it is very likely the oldest living European language.

If Euskera is the oldest living European language, are Basques the oldest European culture? For centuries that question has driven both Basques and non-Basques on the quest to find the Basque origin. Miguel de Unamuno, one of the best-known Basque writers, devoted his earliest work, written in 1884 when he was still a student, to the question. “I am Basque,” he began, “and so I arrive with suspicion and caution at this little and poorly garnered subject.”

As Unamuno pointed out, and this is still true today, many researchers have not hesitated to employ a liberal dose of imagination. One theory not only has Adam and Eve speaking Euskera but has the language predating their expulsion from the Garden of Eden. The name Eve, according to this theory, comes from ezbai, “no-yes” in Euskera. The walls of Jericho crumbled, it was also discovered, when trumpets blasted a Basque hymn.

The vagaries of fact and fiction were encouraged by the fact that the Basques were so late to document their language. The first book entirely in Euskera was not published until 1545. No Basques had attempted to study their own history or origins until the sixteenth-century Guipúzcoan Esteban de Garibay. Spanish historians of the time had already claimed that Iberia was populated by descendants of Tubal, Noah’s grandson, who went to Iberia thirty-five years after the Flood subsided. Garibay observed that Basque place-names bore a resemblance to those in Armenia where the ark landed, and therefore it was specifically the Basques who descended from Tubal. Was not Mount Gorbeya in southern Vizcaya named after Mount Gordeya in Armenia? Garibay traced Euskera to the Tower of Babel.

In 1729, when Manuel de Larramendi wrote the first book of Basque grammar ever published, he asserted that Euskera was one of seventy-five languages to have developed out of the confusion at the Tower of Babel. According to Juan Bautista de Erro, whose The Primitive World or a Philosophical Examination of Antiquity and Culture of the Basque Nation was published in Madrid in 1815, Euskera is the world’s oldest language, having been devised by God as the language of Adam’s Paradise, preserved in the Tower of Babel, surviving the Flood because Noah spoke the language, and brought to present-day Basque country by Tubal.

In one popular legend, the first Basque was Aïtor, one of a few remarkable men who survived the Flood without Noah’s ark, by leaping from stone to stone. However, Aïtor, still recognized by some as the father of all Basques, was invented in 1848 by the French Basque writer Augustin Chaho. After Chaho’s article on Aïtor was translated into Spanish in 1878, the legend grew and became a mainstay of Basque culture. Some who said Aïtor was mere fiction went on to hypothesize that the real father of all Basques was Tubal.

Since then, links have been conjectured with languages of the Caucasus, Africa, Siberia, and Japan. One nineteenth-century researcher concluded that Basques were a Celtic tribe, another that they were Etruscans. And inevitably it has been discovered that the Basques, like so many other peoples, were actually the lost thirteenth tribe of Israel. Just as inescapably, others have concluded that the Basques are, in reality, the survivors of Atlantis.

A case for the Basques really being Jews was carefully made by a French clergyman, the abbot J. Espagnolle, in a 1900 book titled L’Origine des Basques (The Origin of the Basques). For this theory to work, the reader first had to realize that the people of ancient Sparta were Jewish. To support this claim, Espagnolle quotes a historian of ancient Greece who wrote, “Love of money is a Spartan characteristic.” If this was not proof enough, he also argues that Sparta, like Judea, had a lack of artisans. The wearing of hats and respect for elders were among further evidence offered. From there, it was simply a matter of asserting, as ancient Greek historians had, he said, that the Spartans colonized northern Spain. And of course these Spartan colonists who later became Basques were Jewish.

With issues of nationhood at stake, such seemingly desperate hypotheses may not be devoid of political motives. “Indigenous” is a powerful notion to both the French and Spanish states. Both define their history as the struggle of their people, the rightful indigenous occupants, to defend their land against the Moors, invaders from another place, of another race, and of another religion. In Europe, this heroic struggle has long been an essential underpinning of both nationalism and racism. The idea that Basques were in their European mountains, speaking their own indigenous European language, long before the French and the Spanish, is disturbing to French and Spanish nationalists. Unless the Basques can be shown to be from somewhere else, the Spanish and French are transformed into the Moorish role-outside invaders imposing an alien culture. From the sixteenth century on, historians receiving government salaries in Madrid wrote histories that deliberately minimized the possibility of indigenous Basques.

But the Basques like the idea, which most evidence supports, that they are the original Europeans, predating all others. If true, it must have been an isolating experience, belonging to this ancient people whose culture had little in common with any of its neighbors. It was written over and over in the records of those who observed the Basques that they spoke a strange language that kept them apart from others. But it is also what kept them together as a people, uniting them to withstand Europe’s great invasions

Blood of the Gods

Interesting article by the late Mabel Royce, Copyright 1976

Found at: http://www.labyrinthina.com/sitchen.htm

 

Are you an rh Negative blood type? If so you could be a descendant of the ancient astronauts themselves!

About a year and a half ago my sister Bonnie and I were discussing some of the unusual characteristics of our family. Bonnie had a problem with infants haemolytic disease. She has 0 negative blood. She has written a book including this problem called “The Deux” by Venus Thaddeus. One of the questions we asked was why does this haemolytic disease occur? Why, along with the Rh negative blood does our family have such a high IQ (135-140 average). Why so many psychic experiences? Why this urge to ask “why?” Why the early maturity or the large head and eyes? Why have, we always felt we were “different” from other people. And so many other things to set us apart.

We were raised in the church, but we never received answers to the questions we asked. Why doesn’t anyone else ask these same questions? We are not satisfied with the answer “just because”. Are there others out there who ask the same questions? Then we heard about the possibility of the ancient astronauts and the pieces started to fall into place.

The rh Registry –Read Full Article >

Hyperborea ~ Rh- Bloodline Migrations into the World

Found at: http://www.unexplainable.net/artman/publish/article_12014.shtml

 

You will notice that many DNA studies on line ONLY track the SERPENT BLOODLINES with the Rh Negative blood factor. These studies focus on the Basque area of Europe. These studies DO NOT track the PURE rH NEGATIVE BLOODLINE FACTOR group back to Hyperborea.

 

INTERESTING

 

IT WOULD APPEAR THAT THEY DO NOT WANT US TO FIND OUT WHERE OUR PURE RH NEGATIVE BLOODLINE ANCESTORS CAME FROM.

 

These studies also track the Rh Negative bloodlines to a place in Europe where inbreeding occurred. These studies take us back to a place where the DARK HAIR DARK EYED RACES mingled their seed in with the BLONDE BLUE-EYED Scandinavians in places like the Iberian Peninsula, France and the British Isles.

 

Some scientists would have us believe that the human race started in Africa despite the fact that the oldest mummies found in recent archeological digs all over the world were of Scandinavian. Some scientists state that mankind evolve from monkeys somewhere in Africa, but cannot find the missing link between the Rhesus Monkey and human beings. This scientific opinion has always been a highly contested theory.

The rh Registry 

Read Full Story >

 

 The Annunaki: Enki & Enlil

Found at:http://www.rumormillnews.com/cgi-bin/archive.cgi?read=101510

 

This is an excerpt from the book ‘Keeper of the Celtic Secrets:’

 

Finally, [from “Keeper of the Celtic Secrets”], knowledge about the origins of the major races, who call the Earth home, is being shared with others. You must keep an open mind – stay out of your cave now, or you won’t be able to grasp the wisdom being presented here.

 

Yes, Virginia, there really were E.T.’s, who do you think provided the wisdom to build the pyramids, give us mathematical equations, science and astronomy? Are you ready for some real wisdom? OK – Good. As per old family journals containing knowledge from ancient Ireland, the origin of races are as follows:

 

  1. Caucasoid, or the WHITE races, descend from the Anunnaki, including the Elohiym godhead. And yes, the ancient Israelites, are actually descendants of the Elohiym royal family.

http://rhnegativeregistry.com/welcome.html

http://rhnegativeregistry.com/rh-negative-survey-1.html

http://rhnegativeregistry.com/membership_options.html

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Conclusion

These patterns of ABO, Rh, and Diego blood type distributions are not similar to those for skin color or other so-called “racial” traits.  The implication is that the specific causes responsible for the distribution of human blood types have been different than those for other traits that have been commonly employed to categorize people into “races.”  Since it would be possible to divide up humanity into radically different groupings using blood typing instead of other genetically inherited traits such as skin color, we have more conclusive evidence that the commonly used typological model for understanding human variation is scientifically unsound.

The more we study the precise details of human variation, the more we understand how complex are the patterns.  They cannot be easily summarized or understood.  Yet, this hard-earned scientific knowledge is generally ignored in most countries because of more demanding social and political concerns.  As a result, discrimination based on presumed “racial” groups still continues.  It is important to keep in mind that this “racial” classification often has more to do with cultural and historical distinctions than it does with biology.  In a very real sense, “race” is a distinction that is created by culture not biology.

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